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Descriptions of methods in empirical studies

Schreibtischtäter > Academic writing > Methods - Models - Theories

Science works, but other empirical studies are based, are usually the so-called IMRAD structure:

  • Introduction
  • Materials
  • Methods
  • Results
  • Discussion.

This structure allows little room for individual variation. After the introduction, you will allow in each case on its own methods section that describes their approach:
Experiments, interviews, series of lessons, projects, data collection, observations. This chapter, you can "research design", "research design" or "Material and Methods" call. Describe your approach in each case in such detail that an interested reader could understand temptation arrangement.


Depending on the field can be named different aspects and thus can this subsection divided again into: patients / subjects / Cooperating Companies / interviewee / species / trials / testing programs / series of lessons / project plan / study process / implementation / test material / study objects / materials, examination technique / OP technology / equipment.
Data recovery

Here differ depending on the sector: data sources / data collection / data capture / data entry / measurement methods / interviews / Metrology / questionnaires / participant observation / instruments of data collection / sample / Length sectional analysis / cross-sectional analysis / structural models / measurement models.

If you describe the development of your questionnaire or interview guidelines and your implementation of the survey are relevant, among others, the following factors:

  • Data sources: questionnaires / interviews
  • Time and duration of surveys
  • Total number of scanned objects or number of items per group
  • Contact
  • informing the respondents about the research project
  • Function / qualification of respondents
  • topics or interview / survey
  • Individual interviews / group interviews
  • telephone interview or personal interview
  • type of record (recorded or written notes)
  • Standardized, open or semi-structured interview
  • questionnaires anonymously or identified by name
  • Open or closed questions
  • wave panel study or elevation
  • Feedback to respondents
  • Pre - Test

The presentation of data extraction can be initiated as follows:

Formulations to describe the data extraction

  • Data were obtained
  • determined
  • used
  • charged
  • requested
  • measured
  • registers
  • Tested
  • checks

Observations were

  • appointed
  • held
  • distinguished
  • minuted

A questionnaire / interview guide was

  • developed
  • designed
  • elaborated
  • created
  • tested
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